R is a computer language dedicated to statistics and data science . The best known implementation of the R language is the GNU R software.
The R language is derived from the S language developed by John Chambers and his colleagues at Bell Laboratories .
GNU R is free software distributed under the terms of the GNU GPL license and available under GNU / Linux , FreeBSD , NetBSD , OpenBSD , Mac OS X and Windows .
Project R was born in 1993 as a research project by Ross Ihaka and Robert Gentleman at the University of Auckland ( New Zealand ) 2 , 3 .
Since 1997, about twenty developers form the development team of R ( R Development Core team ). The members of this team have the right to write on the source code 4 .
Version R 1.0.0, the first official version of the R language, was published on 29 February 2000 2 .
In 2003, the development team created the R Foundation for Statistical Computing to support the R project and become a reference point of reference for those who want to get in touch with the R 2 , 5 community . At this time, the language has more than 200 libraries developed by the scientific community that uses R 3 .
In 2015, several important economic players such as IBM, Microsoft or the company rstudio create the R Consortium to support R community and fund projects around the language 6 .
The best known distribution of the R language is the R Project and the Comprehensive R Archive Network (CRAN). There are other distributions like the distribution proposed by Microsoft 7 or that of the Oracle company , Oracle R Distribution 8 , 9 .
The best known implementation of the R language is the GNU R software provided by the R Project 10 .
There are experimental projects such as the Rho project to develop faster versions of the R 11 language .
RStudio is an integrated development environment that allows you to work in R, develop new libraries and work with notebooks .
Jupyter is a web application allowing to develop notebooks in Python , Julia or in R.
Community of contributors
R has a very large number of libraries developed by a community of contributors. For example, RDocumentation.org lists more than 12,000 libraries on the Comprehensive R Archive Network (CRAN), GitHub and Bioconductor (in) in February 2017 12 .
The Bioconductor project alone includes more than 1,000 libraries enabling biostatistics researchers to analyze and decrypt the genome 3 .
A survey conducted by Rexer Analytics among 1,300 analysts finds that R is the most commonly used software when it comes to working in a company, in the academic world, in public bodies or NGOs, and among analysts working as consultants 13 .
On Twitter , the community gathers around the hashtag rstats 14 . On Stack Overflow , there is a large community around the R 15 tag . There is also an important blogosphere around the aggregator R-Bloggers.
The R Task Views page of the Comprehensive R Archive Network gives an idea of the scope and functionality of the R 16 language .
Manipulation of data
R contains many data manipulation libraries . The developer Hadley Wickham has notably developed libraries Dplyr and Tidyr that define a grammar of data manipulation.
Visualization of data
R contains many data visualization libraries .
The Ggplot2 library developed by Hadley Wickham defines a graphical grammar and allows to combine different graphic layers.
The Sweave language combines LaTeX code sections and R-language code sections to produce scientific publications directly from R.
The language Rmarkdown combines sections of text formatted in markdown and R in code sections to complete reports in the format Microsoft Word or PDF , presentations format Beamer or HTML5 ( slidy.js or reveal.js ) Web pages, complete websites or even entire works.
The Shiny framework developed by the company RStudio makes it possible to realize interactive web applications in R-language.
Awards and Honors
- 2015: Silver Medal in Data Visualization Tool category at Information is Beautiful Awards 17
Notes and references
- ↑ https://cran.r-project.org/doc/manuals/r-release/NEWS.html [ archive ]
- ↑ a , b and c ” Over 16 years of R Project history ” [ archive ] on Revolution Analytics Blog (accessed 18 February 2017 )
- ↑ a , b and c Tippmann 2015
- ↑ ” Contributors ” [ archive ] , on R-project.org (accessed February 18, 2017 )
- ↑ ” The R Foundation ” [ archive ] , on R-project.org (accessed February 18, 2017 )
- ↑ https://www.r-consortium.org/about [ archive ]
- ↑ Microsoft R Open [ archive ]
- ↑ Oracle R Distribution [ archive ]
- ↑ Oracle R Technologies [ archive ]
- ↑ ( en ) Hadley Wickham , “Performance” , in Advanced R ( read online [ archive ] )
- ↑ https://github.com/rho-devel/rho [ archive ]
- ↑ ” RDocumentation ” [ archive ] , on RDocumentation.org (accessed February 17, 2017 )
- ↑ ( in ) David Smith , ” R users: Be ‘counted in Rexer’s 2013 Data Miner Survey ” , Revolution Analytics Blog , ( Read online [ archive ] ).
- ↑ https://twitter.com/hashtag/rstats?lang=en [ archive ]
- ↑ Tag R [ archive ] on Stack Overflow, but also on the parent site dedicated to statistics, Cross Validated [ archive ]
- ↑ https://cran.r-project.org/web/views/ [ archive ]
- ↑ ” R ” [ archive ] , on Information is Beautiful Awards (accessed February 26, 2017 )