Scratch (language)

Scratch is a visual and dynamic implementation of the Smalltalk programming language based on Squeak .

This coding learning platform includes more than 14.5 million shared projects ranging from animation to 3D simulation. The number of registered users is 12 million and keeps increasing 3 .


  • Scratch is dynamic : it allows to modify the code of the program being executed.
  • Scratch is multimedia-oriented with the aim of teaching the universe to children, it is based on the manipulation of objects in the pure tradition of E-Toys  (en) known as Squeak , as well as sounds and videos.
  • Scratch is visual, all the code is directly written in the mother tongue of the child (some twenty European languages ​​are available) in the form of colored bricks (eg orange controls, red variables, blue movements ). It allows to visually implement basic concepts of programming such as loops , tests, variable assignments.
  • Scratch allows the teacher to diffuse his pedagogy through the interactivity quasi-playful objects manipulated by these software bricks. The name Scratch comes from Turntablism , the art of mixing sounds with mixers, like this vision of reusing objects.
  • Scratch makes it possible to make online projects realized using the Adobe Flash Player plugin which transforms Scratch projects into web applications .

Use as a teaching language

Scratch programming environment in French.

Scratch’s domains of use go beyond the academic world, but have a strong community of teachers, students and enthusiasts who exhibit and share their creations, creativity and developments on the Scratch website.

The Scratch slogan is “Imagine · Program · Sharing! ” . Sharing is indeed a fundamental part of Scratch’s pedagogy. Recycling existing projects to invent new ones is the design of this micromonde .

Scratch is a development environment , web site, and a Scratch scripts reader.

The source code of Scratch is still developing. It is distributed under two licenses, including the GPL . However, Scratch and other elements are trademarks (trademarks), the re-distribution is subject to constraints 4 . A version not containing the trademarks is made available and allows to distribute any modifications with a GPL license . Whatever the free version or not, Scratch requires software not free to operate, such as Adobe Flash Player .

In the French-speaking world, Coding snacks are organized around the Scratch tools with a specific community 5 .

Scratch in the French reform of the college of 2015

With the reform of the colleges in France of 2015 appears the notions of coding and programming, and the learning platform Scratch can be used in this framework. The subject 0 of the Eduscol 6 DNB contains an exercise whose questions relate to algorithms realized with Scratch 6 .

Different academic groups in mathematics (through shared academic works 7 and the call for projects 2016) broadcast Scratch usage scenarios for teaching 8 .

The various coding bricks

The Scratch language consists of multiple bricks allowing to execute a precise action. There are 10 different brick categories (sorted by color) 9 :

Notes and references

  1. ↑ ( in ) ” Scratch 2.0 will be released on May 9 [ archive ] (accessed 24 December 2015 )
  2. ↑ This free software requires non-free software such as Adobe Flash .
  3. ↑ ” Scratch Statistics [ archive ] , at  [ archive ] , (Accessed 20 March 2015 ) .
  4. ↑ The source code  [ archive ] of the GPL version.
  5. ↑  [ archive ] .
  6. a and b News – DNB 2017 [ archive ] , on Éduscol ( consulted on April 23, 2016 ) .
  7. ↑ ” Algorithmic in Mathematics of High School (2015/2016) [ Archive ] , on Éduscol (accessed April 24, 2016 )
  8. ↑ ” The academies [ archive ] , on Éduscol ( consulted on April 24, 2016 ) .
  9. ↑ ” Scratch [ archive ] , at  [ archive ] , (Accessed 20 March 2015 ) .